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Pollux - Antarctica

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The brainchild of the Anglo-Norwegian explorer Carsten Borchgrevinkit was the first expedition to over-winter on the Antarctic mainland, the first to visit the Great Ice Barrier —later known as the Ross Ice Shelf—since Sir James Clark Ross 's Pollux - Antarctica expedition of toand the first to effect a landing on the Barrier's surface.

It also pioneered the use of dogs and sledges in Pollux - Antarctica travel. The expedition was privately financed by the British magazine publisher Sir George Newnes. Borchgrevink's party sailed in the Southern Crossand spent the southern winter of at Cape Adarethe northwest extremity of the Ross Sea coastline. Here they carried out Pollux - Antarctica extensive programme of scientific observations, although opportunities for inland exploration were restricted by the mountainous and glaciated terrain surrounding the base.

On its return to England the expedition was coolly received by London's geographical establishment exemplified by the Royal Geographical Societywhich resented the pre-emption of the pioneering Antarctic role they envisaged for the Discovery Expedition. There were also questions about Borchgrevink's leadership qualities, and criticism of the limited extent of scientific results.

Thus, despite the number of significant "firsts", Borchgrevink was never accorded the heroic status of Scott or Pollux - Antarcticaand his expedition was soon forgotten in the dramas which surrounded these and other Heroic Age explorers. However, Roald Amundsenconqueror of the South Pole inacknowledged that Borchgrevink's expedition had removed the greatest obstacles to Antarctic travel, and had opened the way for all the expeditions that followed.

Born in Oslo in to a Norwegian father and an English mother, Carsten Borchgrevink emigrated to Australia inwhere he worked as a land surveyor in the interior before accepting a provincial schoolteaching appointment in New South Wales.

A party including Bull and Borchgrevink briefly landed there, and claimed to be the first men to set foot on the Antarctic continent—although the American sealer Pollux - Antarctica Davis believed he had landed on the Antarctic Peninsula in After his return from Cape Adare, Borchgrevink spent much of the following years in Australia and England, seeking financial backing for an Antarctic expedition.

Despite a well-received address to the Sixth International Geographical Congress in London, in which he professed his willingness to lead such a venture, [7] he was initially unsuccessful.

This gift infuriated Markham and the RGS, since Newnes's donation, had it come their way would, Pollux - Antarctica said have been enough "to get the National Expedition on its legs". Newnes stipulated that Borchgrevink's expedition should sail under the British flagand be styled the "British Antarctic Expedition". Borchgrevink readily agreed to these conditions, even though only two of the entire expedition party were British. He hoped that this reproach would be lifted through "the munificence of Sir George Pollux - Antarctica and the courage of Mr Borchgrevink".

Borchgrevink's original expedition objectives included the development of commercial opportunities, as well as scientific and geographical discovery.

However, his plans to exploit the extensive guano deposits that he had observed during his —95 voyage were not pursued. For his expedition's ship, Borchgrevink purchased in a steam whaler, Polluxthat had been built in in Arendal on the south east coast of Norway, to the design of renowned shipbuilder Colin Archer. The ship was taken to Archer's yard in Larvik to be fitted out with engines designed to Borchgrevink's specification.

Like several of the historic polar ships her post-expedition life was relatively short. The ten-man shore party who were to winter at Cape Adare consisted of Various - Welcome To SmokeSkull, five scientists, a medical officer, a cook who also served as a general assistant, and two dog drivers.

Five—including Borchgrevink—were Norwegian, two were English, one Australian and the two dog experts Sami from northern Norway, sometimes described in expedition accounts as Lapps or "Finns". Among the scientists was the Tasmanian Louis Bernacchiwho had studied magnetism Pollux - Antarctica meteorology at the Melbourne Observatory.

Pollux - Antarctica had been appointed to the Belgian Antarctic Expedition of —, but had been unable to take up his post when the expedition's ship, the Belgica Comodo. Scherzando. Ohne Hast - Mahler*, Bernstein*, New York Philharmonic* - The Complete Symphonie, had failed to call at Melbourne on its way south.

His later chronicle of the expedition [22] was critical of aspects of Borchgrevink's leadership, but defended the expedition's scientific achievements. Borchgrevink's assistant zoologist was Hugh Blackwell Evans, a vicar's son from Bristolwho had spent three years on a cattle ranch in Canada and had also been on a sealing voyage to the Kerguelen Islands. Also in the shore party was Herlof Klovstad, the expedition's medical officer, whose previous appointment had been to a lunatic asylum in Bergen.

Jensen was an experienced ice navigator in Arctic and Antarctic waters, and had been with Borchgrevink on Bull's Antarctic voyage in — She crossed the Antarctic Circle on 23 Januaryand after a three-week delay in pack ice sighted Cape Adare on 16 February, before anchoring close to the shore on the following day.

Cape Adare, discovered by Antarctic explorer James Clark Ross during his —43 expeditionlies at the end of a long promontorybelow which is the large triangular shingle foreshore where Bull and Borchgrevink had made their brief landing in This foreshore held one of the largest Adelie penguin rookeries on the entire continent and had ample room, as Borchgrevink had remarked in"for houses, tents and provisions".

Unloading began on 17 February. First ashore were the dogs, [28] with their two Sami handlers, who remained with them and thus became the first men to spend a night on the Antarctic continent. A third structure was contrived Te Quiero - Various - Való Világ 3 spare materials, to serve as a magnetic observation hut.

That day, Southern Cross departed to winter in Australia. The living hut contained a small ante-room used as a photographic darkroomand another for taxidermy. Daylight was admitted to the hut via a double-glazed, shuttered window, and through a small square pane high on the northern wall.

Bunks were fitted around the outer walls, and a table and stove dominated the centre. Outside activities were largely curtailed in mid-May, with the onset of winter.

Winter proved to be a difficult time; Bernacchi wrote of rising boredom and irritation: "Officers and men, ten of us in all, found tempers wearing thin". Borchgrevink's lack of scientific training, and his inability to make simple observations, were additional matters of concern. Exercise was taken outside the hut when the weather permitted, and as a further diversion Savio improvised a sauna in the snowdrifts.

Concerts Pollux - Antarctica held, including lantern slides, songs and readings. In the second, three of the party were nearly asphyxiated by coal fire fumes as they slept. The party was well-supplied with a variety of basic foodstuffs—butter, tea and Pollux - Antarcticaherrings, sardines, cheeses, soup, tinned tripe, plum pudding, dry potatoes and vegetables.

The zoologist, Nicolai Hansonhad fallen ill during the winter. On 14 October he died, apparently of an intestinal disorder, and became the first person to be buried on the Antarctic continent. The grave was dynamited from the frozen ground at the summit of the Cape.

As winter gave way to spring, the party prepared for more ambitious inland Killer Cut - Charlie - Fight Dirty using the dogs and sledges. Their base camp was cut off from the continent's interior by high mountain ranges, and journeys along the coastline were frustrated by unsafe sea ice. These factors severely restricted their exploration, which was largely confined to the vicinity of Robertson Bay. On 28 January Southern Cross returned.

Southern Cross first called at Possession Island, where the tin box left by Borchgrevink and Bull in was recovered. Here, Borchgrevink and Captain Jensen were almost drowned by a large wave caused by a calving or breakaway of ice from the adjacent Great Ice Barrier. On its passage northward, Southern Cross halted at Franklin IslandPollux - Antarctica the Victoria Land coast, and made a series of magnetic calculations.

These indicated that the location of the South Magnetic Pole was, as expected, within Victoria Land, but further north and further west than had previously been assumed. On 1 April, news of their safe return was sent by telegram from Bluff, New Zealand. Southern Cross returned to England in JuneAlla Dina Kyssar - Barbados - Alla Dina Kyssar to a cool welcome; public attention was distracted by the preparations for the upcoming Discovery Expedition, due to sail the following year.

Borchgrevink's account of the expedition, First on the Antarctic ContinentEvinha - Ben / Me Mande Dizer Qualquer Novidade published the following year; the English edition, much of which may have been embroidered by Newnes's staff, was criticised for its "journalistic" style and for its bragging tone.

Despite the unexplained disappearance of many of Hansen's notes, Hugh Robert Mill described the expedition as "interesting as a dashing Pollux - Antarctica of scientific work".

Borchgrevink also claimed the discovery of new insect and shallow-water fauna species, proving "bi-polarity" existence of species in proximity to the North and South poles. The geographical establishments in Britain and abroad were slow to give formal recognition to the expedition. The Royal Geographical Society gave Borchgrevink a fellowship, and other medals and honours eventually followed from Norway, Denmark and the United States, [1] but the expedition's achievements were not widely recognised.

Markham persisted in describing Borchgrevink as cunning and unprincipled; [46] Amundsen's warm tribute was a lone approving voice. It admitted that "justice had not been done at the time to the pioneer work of the Southern Cross expedition", and that the magnitude of the difficulties it had overcome had previously been underestimated.

He died in Oslo on 21 April From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Australian Dictionary of Biography Online Edition. Retrieved 10 August Antarctic Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 29 August University of CanterburyNew Zealand. Archived from the original on 10 August London: John Murray. Another member of the shore party, Louis Bernacchiwas Australian; the remainder were all Scandinavian. Cool Antarctica. Retrieved 11 August Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador.

Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 13 Pollux - Antarctica United States Geographic Survey. Retrieved 18 August Polar exploration. Ocean History Expeditions Research stations. Ross J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Roch H. Larsen Cowper. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Continent History Expeditions. Ronne E. Fuchs Messner.


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  2. The Southern Cross Expedition, otherwise known as the British Antarctic Expedition, –, was the first British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, and the forerunner of the more celebrated journeys of Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest megalsaigenuadamath.infoinfo brainchild of the Anglo-Norwegian explorer Carsten Borchgrevink, it was the first expedition to over-winter on the Antarctic.
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