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Press release issued: 30 November The east sides of major UK cities such as London and Manchester have historically been the poorest due to industrial pollution. This has resulted in unequal distribution of social classes across cities that is still evident today. This is the main finding of research carried out by economists from the University of Bristol in collaboration with the University of St Andrews.
The research provides insights into some long-term costs of pollution, and informs policy makers of the potential benefits of active environmental regulation to shape pollution exposure in cities such as pollution permits and possible urban policies to alleviate the effects of pollution such as targeted urban investment to revitalise affected neighbourhoods.
They analysed data frombefore coal became the major source of energy, and data fromaround the peak time of coal use. The incidence of social deprivation was found to be 15 per cent greater in east sides than in west. Having established that pollution caused historical neighbourhood sorting, they then focussed on the period between andwhen pollution from coal burning Anarchy - Nuctemeron - Industrial Pollution abruptly.
During the Industrial Revolution, areas of many cities in the Northern Hemisphere were covered with layers of soot produced by coal-burning factories and blown from west Hietasen Muistoja - Various - Suomi Tanssii east by prevailing winds, known as The Westerlies.
East sides were sporadically covered under dark smog, Anarchy - Nuctemeron - Industrial Pollution rendered them unpleasant places in which to live. Those people who could afford to do so, moved to neighbourhoods unaffected by pollution. The researchers were surprised to discover that even after this sharp decline in industrial pollution, formerly polluted neighbourhoods in cities such as Manchester still remain Tina - Warehouse - Twelve poor parts of town today, with marked differences in schooling outcomes and crime incidence.
The unequal distribution of pollution exposure thus induced a sorting process which left the middle and upper class in the relatively less polluted neighbourhoods. The areas that were more polluted in the past Anarchy - Nuctemeron - Industrial Pollution have lower quality students and outcomes, and higher rates of crime and drug-related crimes. In contrast, in neighbourhoods where past pollution was well above the city average, social segregation remained.
The researchers say their work could have implications for the design of environmental and urban policies for economies Wonderful Tonight #2 - Eric Clapton - Eric Clapton Featuring Dr. John & Buddy Guy (DVD) as China, as it undergoes structural transformation.
View all news Industrial Revolution leaves east ends of major cities poorer than the west. News Browse by category. Undergraduate study Find a course Open days and visits New undergraduate students. Postgraduate study Find a programme Visits and open days New postgraduate students. Related links International students Accommodation.
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