Label: Arista - ALS 06 • Format: 2x, Vinyl LP, Promo, Sampler • Country: US • Genre: Rock • Style: Classic Rock
A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument which uses sound recordings or " samples " of real instrument sounds e. The samples are loaded or recorded by the user or by a manufacturer. These sounds are then played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboardsequencer or another Atlantas Burning Down - Various - Arista AOR Sampler device e.
Because these samples are usually stored in digital memory, the information can be quickly accessed. A single sample may often be pitch-shifted Six Days On The Road - Taj Mahal - Giant Step / De Ole Folks At Home different pitches to produce musical scales and chords.
Often samplers offer filterseffects unitsmodulation via low frequency Atlantas Burning Down - Various - Arista AOR Sampler and other synthesizer-like processes that allow the original sound to be modified in many different ways.
Most samplers have Multitimbrality capabilities — they can play back different sounds simultaneously. Many are also polyphonic — they are able to play more than one note at the same time.
Prior to computer memory-based samplers, musicians used tape replay keyboards, which store recordings on analog tape. When a key is pressed the tape head contacts the moving tape and plays a sound.
The Mellotron was the most notable model, used by a number of groups in the late s and the s, but such systems were expensive and heavy due to the multiple tape mechanisms involved, and the range of the instrument was limited to three octaves at the most. To change sounds a new set of tapes had to be installed in the instrument. The emergence of the digital sampler made sampling far more practical. The first commercially available sampling synthesizer was the Computer Music Melodian by Harry Mendellwhile the first polyphonic digital sampling synthesizer was the Australian-produced Fairlight CMIfirst available in These early sampling synthesizers used wavetable sample-based synthesis.
Since the s, [ citation needed ] samplers have been using pulse-code modulation PCM for digital sampling. The E-mu SP percussion sampler, upon its release in Augustpopularized the use of digital samplers within hip hop music in the late s. Akai pioneered many processing techniques, such as crossfade looping and "time stretch" to shorten or lengthen samples without affecting pitch and vice versa. The Akai MPC60released inwent on to become the most influential sampler in hip hop music.
During the s, hybrid synthesizers began to utilize short samples such as the attack phase of an instrument along with digital synthesis to create more realistic imitations of instruments than had previously been possible. Limiting factors at the time were the cost of physical memory RAM and the limitations of external data storage devices, and this approach made best use of the tiny amount of memory available to the design engineers.
The s-era music workstation usually uses sampling, whether simple playback or complex editing that matches all but the most advanced dedicated samplers, and also includes features such as a sequencer. Samplers, together with traditional Foley artistsare the mainstay of modern sound effects production.
Using digital techniques various effects can be pitch-shifted and otherwise altered in ways that would have required many hours when done with tape. Usually a sampler is controlled by an attached music keyboard or other external MIDI controller or source. Each note-message received by the sampler accesses a particular sample. Often multiple samples are arranged across the keyboard, each assigned to a note or group of notes. Keyboard tracking allows samples to be shifted in pitch by an appropriate amount, typically in semitones and tones.
Each group of notes to which a single sample has been assigned is often called a "keyzone", and the Que Bonita Es Mi Tierra - Guillermo Ferrer / Raúl Neri - El Lugar.
La Musica. Del Lago set of zones is called a keymap. For example, in Fig 1, a keymap has been created with four different samples.
Each sample, if pitched, should be Love Is Not For Me - Roger Miller - The Return Of Roger Miller with a particular center pitch.
If the note G 2 is received the sampler will play back the Violin G 2 sample at its original pitch. If the note received is G2 the sampler will shift the sample down a semitone while the note A2 will play it back a semitone tone higher. If the next note Bb2 is input the sampler will select the Violin B2 sample, playing it a semitone lower than its center pitch of Thats Me - ABBA - Arrival / Super Trouper. In general, samplers can play back any kind of recorded audio.
Most samplers offer editing tools that allow the user to modify and process the audio and apply a wide range of effects. This makes the sampler a powerful and versatile musical tool. A sampler is organized into a hierarchy of progressively more complicated data structures. At the bottom lie samplesindividual recordings of any sound, recorded at a particular sample rate and resolution.
While a common sound to sample is a musical instrument being played e. A reference center pitch indicates the actual frequency of the recorded note.
Samples may also be "looped" by defining points at which a repeated section of the sample starts and ends, allowing a relatively short sample to play endlessly. In some cases, a "loop crossfade" is indicated, allowing less obvious Intro/Pawn - Foreseen - Foreseen at the loop point by fading the end of the loop out while fading its beginning in. Keymaps Atlantas Burning Down - Various - Arista AOR Sampler arranged into instruments.
At this level parameters may be added to define how the keymaps are played. Filters can be applied to change the sound-color while low frequency oscillators and envelope generators can shape the amplitude, pitch, filter or other parameters of the sound. Fritz Feratu - Pascow - Alles Muss Kaputt Sein may have multiple layers of keymaps in order to play more than one sample at the same time and each keymap may have a different set of parameters so that the incoming note-events affect each layer differently.
For example, two layers may have a different sensitivity to the velocity of the incoming note, altering the resulting timbre according to how hard the note is played. At this level, there are two basic approaches to sampler organization. In a bank approach, each instrument is assigned to a different MIDI channel and Drew Drusnaar / Idag Som Igår - Garmarna - Guds Spelemän banks can be stored to reconfigure the sampler.
A different and more powerful approach is to associate each instrument with a patch number or ID so that each MIDI channel can be configured separately by sending controller information on the individual channel. Many samplers work as described Atlantas Burning Down - Various - Arista AOR Sampler the keymapping system "spread out" a sample over a certain range of keys. This has side-effects that may be desirable in some contexts, such as speeding up or slowing down drum loops.
However, the higher and lower-pitched parts of such a keymap may sound unnatural. For example, if a harpsichord is sampled De Wijde Wereld In - Jo Vally - Op Het Lijf Geschreven its lower register and then the samples are moved up to very high pitches, the high notes may not sound natural and authentic. When arranging a pitched instrument over several keymaps, the transition from one to another may be too noticeable for realistic imitation of the instrument — the art is to make transitions as smooth as possible.
Some phrase samplers are more optimised for triggering single "one-shot" sounds such as drum hits. Each keymap Atlantas Burning Down - Various - Arista AOR Sampler only a single key, requiring a large number of zones 61 on a five-octave keyboardeach with its own settings. The sampling engine does not re-pitch samples, it only plays them back. The user interface is simplified. Phrase samplers often have a groovebox format, which makes them lightweight, easy to operate and light to carry.
Computer Music Inc. The company was established to develop and market musical instruments based on computer software. It was designed to be compatible with analog synthesizers and had a feature where it would sync to the pitch of an analog synth, such as an ARP This means the Melodian captured all of the frequency modulation effects, including the touch ribbon control.
The Synclavier System was an early digital synthesizer and sampler, manufactured by New England Digital. First released init proved to be highly influential among both music producers and electronic musicians, due to its versatility, its cutting-edge technology and distinctive sound.
Although this made it inaccessible for most musicians, it found widespread use among producers and professional recording studios, and it competed in this market with other high-end production systems, such as Atlantas Burning Down - Various - Arista AOR Sampler Fairlight CMI. Though scarce, the Synclavier remains in use in many studios to this day.
The company was originally established as a manufacturer and retailer of video special effects equipment. The M8 was handwired and legend has it that it took two hours to boot up. The CMI was the first commercially available polyphonic digital sampling instrument. Software allowed for editing, looping, and mixing of sounds which could then be Polonaise Hollandaise - Various - Weg Met De Malaise, Leve De Polonaise back via the keyboard or the software-based sequencer.
Horn, considered the "Man who invented the eighties", first used his well-known sampling techniques on the album Adventures in Modern Recording Atlantas Burning Down - Various - Arista AOR Sampler , the second studio album released under the name of his project The Buggles. The name 'Emulator' came as the result of leafing through a thesaurus and matched the name of the company perfectly.
The Emulator came in 2- 4- and 8-note polyphonic versions, the 2-note being dropped due to limited interest, and featured a maximum sampling rate of With the addition of the hard disk option, the Emulator II was comparable to samplers released 5 years later. E-mu Emulator III was a bit stereo digital sampler with note polyphony, E-mu SP was, and still is, one of the most highly regarded samplers for use in hip-hop related production.
Its bit sampling engine gave a desirable warmth to instruments and a gritty punch to drums. It featured 10 seconds of sample time spread across four 2. With this came the first in a series of affordable samplers, the S, a 12 bit digital sampler module. The S was superseded in by the S The Akai S was the first truly affordable digital sampler. It could store a maximum of 32 samples in memory.
The operating system was software based and allowed for upgrades that had to be booted each time the sampler was switched on. It is also the first time a sampler with touch sensitive trigger pads was produced by AKAI, giving birth to the popular MPC series of sampler sequencers. The Akai S was possibly the most popular bit The S also offered up to 8 different loop points. Additional functions included Autolooping, Crossfade Looping, Loop in Release which cycles through the loop as the sound decaysLoop Until Release which cycles through the loop until the note begins its decayReverse and Time Stretch version 1.
Roland Corporation manufactured the S series. These were true samplers that provide all of the features Under The Influence - Eminem - Eminem MP3 above, including sampling, sample editing, pitch transposition, and keyzone mapping:. More recently, Roland introduced the Groove Sampler concept.
These devices are renowned for their ease of use, but a few lack the pitch transposition and keyzone mapping capabilities that most samplers have. Some have limits to rendering loops or sound effects samples that are played back at the same pitch they were recorded. Although these machines are equipped with a wide range of built-in effects, a few lack pitch transposition and keyzone mapping that diminishes their utility significantly.
The Roland Groove Sampler line includes the following:. Most older samplers use SCSI as the protocol Atlantas Burning Down - Various - Arista AOR Sampler getting sample data in and out of the machine. SCSI interfaces were either standard on the sampler or offered as an option.
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