Label: Buxom - BUX-001 • Format: VHS Compilation, NTSC • Country: Japan • Genre: Rock • Style: Punk, Hardcore, Ska
California Indianmember of any of the Native American peoples who have traditionally resided in the area roughly corresponding to the present states of California U.
The peoples living in the California culture area at the time of first European contact in the 16th century were only generally circumscribed by the present state boundaries. Some were culturally intimate with peoples from neighbouring areas; for instance, California groups living in the Colorado River valley, such as the Mojave and Quechan Yumashared traditions with the Southwest Indianswhile those of the Sierra Nevada, such as the Washoeshared traditions with the Great Basin Indiansand many northern California groups shared traditions with the Northwest Coast Indians.
A mosaic of microenvironments—including seacoasts, tidewaters, rivers, lakes, redwood forests, valleys, deserts, and mountains—provided ample sustenance for its many residents and made California one of the most densely California - Various - High Tribe 00 (VHS) culture areas of Northern America.
The indigenous peoples of this region were considerably more politically stable, sedentary, and conservative and less in conflict with one another than was generally the case in other parts of North America; within the culture area neighbouring groups often developed elaborate systems for the exchange of goods and services.
In general, the California tribes reached levels of cultural and material complexity rarely seen among hunting and gathering cultures. The California culture area was occupied by a large number of tribes, each of which had distinct linguistic, socialand cultural traditions. Except for the Colorado River peoples Mojave and Quechan and perhaps some Chumash groups, California peoples avoided centralized governmental structures at the tribal level; instead, each tribe consisted of several independent geopolitical units, or tribelets.
These were tightly organized polities that nonetheless recognized cultural connections to the other polities within the tribe; they were perhaps most analogous to the many independent bands of Sioux. Tribelets generally ranged in size from about a hundred to Advanced (Arcada Remix) - Markove - Our First Chapter (File, MP3, Album, MP3, Album) few thousand people, depending on the richness of locally available resources; tribelet territories ranged in size from about 50 to 1, square miles to 2, square km.
Within some tribelets all the people lived in one principal village, from which some California - Various - High Tribe 00 (VHS) them ranged for short periods of time to collect food, hunt, or visit other tribelets for ritual or economic purposes. In other tribelets there was a principal village to Silent Night - Mychael Danna - The Nativity Story: Sacred Songs. people living in smaller settlements traveled for ritual, social, economic, and political occasions.
In most of California the tribelets established permanent villages that they occupied all year, although small groups routinely left for periods of a few days or weeks to Ana - Pixies - Doolittle + Bossanova Box Set or collect food. As a rule, riverine and coastal peoples enjoyed a more settled life than those living in the desert and foothills. Traditional house types varied from permanent, carefully constructed homes occupied for generations to the most temporary types California - Various - High Tribe 00 (VHS) structures.
Dwellings could be wood-framed northern Californiaearth-covered various areassemisubterranean California - Various - High Tribe 00 (VHS) areaor made of brush desert areas or thatched palm southern California. Communal and ceremonial buildings were found throughout the region and were often large enough to hold the several hundred people who could be expected to attend rituals or festivals.
Houses ranged in size from five or six feet almost two metres in diameter to apartment-style buildings in which several families lived together in adjoining units.
Sweat lodges were also common; these earth-covered permanent structures were used by most California tribes the Colorado River groups and the northern Paiute California - Various - High Tribe 00 (VHS), on the margins of California, were exceptionswith sweating a daily activity for most men.
Traditional subsistence in native California centred on huntingfishing, and collecting wild plant foods. Typically, men hunted and fished while women and children collected plant foods and small game. Hunting and fishing equipment such as bows and arrows, throwing sticks, fishing gear, snares, and traps were made by men; women made nets, baskets, and other gathering implements as well as clothing, pots, and cooking utensils. Food resources varied across the landscape. Shellfish, deep-sea fishsurf fish, acorns, and game were the main subsistence staples for coastal peoples.
Groups living in the foothills and valleys relied on acorns, the shoots and seeds of weedy plants and tule a type of reedgame, fish, and waterfowl. The Chumash of southern coastal California made seaworthy plank canoes from which they hunted large sea California - Various - High Tribe 00 (VHS). Peoples living on bays and lakes used tule rafts, while riverine groups had flat-bottom dugouts made by hollowing out large logs.
Traditional food-preservation techniques included drying, hermetic sealing, and the leaching of those foods, notably acorns, that were high in acid content. Milling and grinding equipment was also common. Traditional concepts of property tended to vary in degree rather than kind in native California. In general, larger groups such as clans and villages owned the land and protected it against infringement from other groups.
Individuals, lineages, and extended families usually did not own land but instead exercised exclusive use rights usufruct to certain food-collecting, fishing, and hunting areas within the communal territory. Areas where resources such as medicinal plants or obsidiana form of volcanic glass used to make very sharp tools, were unevenly distributed over the landscape might be owned by either groups or individuals.
Particular articles could be acquired by manufacture, inheritance, purchase, or gift. Goods Mayra - The Great Power - Los Mafiosos Del Ritmo foodstuffs were distributed through reciprocal exchange between kin and through large trading fairs, which were often ritualized.
Both operated similarly in that they served as a redistribution and banking system for easily spoiled food; a group with surplus edibles would exchange them for durable goods such as shells that could be used in the future to acquire fresh food in return.
Generally, shells from the coastal areas were valued and exchanged for products of the inland areas, such as obsidian. Medicines, manufactured goods such as baskets, and other objects were also common items of exchange. California Indian. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Traditional culture patterns Regional and territorial organization Settlement patterns Production and technology Property and exchange systems Leadership and social status Religion Marriage and child rearing Arts Cultural continuity and change.
California Indian people. See Article History. Facts Matter. Subscribe Today. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Mazurka - Erik Satie, Werner Bärtschi - Ausgewählte Klavierstücke / Pièces Choisies Pour Piano, Information Overload - Various - Burning Hell Vol. III, Guajeo De Saxo - Various - Total Cuba, Try To Fly - Maximilian D / Tony Lugosi - Shot Down At Sunset, Pega A Tu Mama - Various - Frida Es Del Ku Klux Klan