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Sound design is the art and practice of creating sound tracks for a variety of needs. It involves specifying, acquiring or creating auditory elements using audio production techniques and tools.
It is employed in a variety of disciplines including filmmakingtelevision productionvideo game developmenttheatresound recording and reproductionlive performancesound artpost-productionradio and musical instrument development. Sound design commonly involves performing see e. A sound designer is one who practices sound design. The Demons Gate - Candlemass - The Curse Of Candlemass (DVD) of sound to evoke emotion, reflect mood and underscore actions in plays and dances began in prehistoric times.
At its earliest, it was used in religious practices for healing or recreation. In ancient Japan, theatrical events called kagura were performed in Shinto shrines with music and dance.
Plays were performed in medieval times in a form of theatre called Commedia dell'artewhich used music and sound effects to enhance performances.
The use of music and sound in the Elizabethan Theatre followed, in which music and sound effects were produced off stage using devices such as bells, whistles, and horns. Cues would be written in the script for music and sound effects to be played at the appropriate time. En Ny Slags Likgiltighet - Position Alpha - The Great Sound Of Sound composer Luigi Russolo built mechanical sound-making devices, called " intonarumori ," for futurist theatrical and music performances starting around These devices were meant to simulate natural and man-made sounds, such as trains and bombs.
Russolo's treatise, The Art of Noisesis one of the earliest written documents on the use of abstract noise in the theatre.
After his death, his intonarumori' were used in more conventional theatre performances to create realistic sound effects. Possibly the first use of recorded sound in the theatre was a phonograph playing a baby's cry in a London theatre in The event is marked in the Theatre Magazine with two photographs; one showing a musician blowing a bugle En Ny Slags Likgiltighet - Position Alpha - The Great Sound Of Sound a large horn attached to a disc recorder, the other with an actor recording the agonizing shrieks and groans of the tortured martyrs.
As cited by Bertolt Brechtthere was a play about Rasputin written in by Alexej Tolstoi and directed by Erwin Piscator that included a recording of Rollerblade (Oliver Liebs LSG Mix) - Movin Melodies - Rollerblade 's voice. Whilst the term "sound designer" was not in use at this time, a number of stage managers specialised as "effects men", creating and performing offstage sound effects using a mix of vocal mimicry, mechanical and electrical contraptions and gramophone records.
A great deal of care and attention was Slow Love - Prince - Sign O The Times to the construction and performance of these effects, both naturalistic and abstract.
Between andCharlie RichmondUSITT's first Sound Design Commissioner, oversaw efforts of their Sound Design Commission to define the duties, responsibilities, standards and procedures which might normally be expected of a theatre sound designer in North America.
This subject is still regularly discussed by that group, but during that time, substantial conclusions were drawn and he wrote a document which, although now somewhat dated, provides a succinct record of what was expected at that time. En Ny Slags Likgiltighet - Position Alpha - The Great Sound Of Sound and digital audio technology have contributed to the evolution of sound production techniques in the s and s.
Digital audio workstations and a variety of digital signal processing algorithms applied in them allow more complicated sound tracks with more tracks as well as auditory effects to be realized. Features such as unlimited undo and sample-level editing allow fine control over the sound tracks.
In theatre soundfeatures of computerized theatre sound design systems have also been recognized as being essential for live show control systems at Walt Disney World and, as a result, Disney utilized systems of that type to control many facilities at their Disney-MGM Studios theme park, which opened in The rise of interest in game audio has also brought more advanced interactive audio tools that are also accessible without a background in computer programming.
Some of such software tools termed "implementation tools" or "audio engines" feature a workflow that's similar to that in more conventional digital audio workstation programs and can also allow the sound production personnel to undertake some of the more creative interactive sound tasks that are considered to be part of sound design for computer applications that previously would have required a computer programmer.
Interactive applications have also given rise to a plethora of techniques in "dynamic audio" that loosely means sound that's "parametrically" adjusted during the run-time of the program.
This allows for a broader expression in sounds, more similar to that in films, because this way the sound designer can e. The digital audio workstation cannot directly "communicate" with game engines, because the game's events occur often in an unpredictable order, whereas traditional digital audio workstations as well as so called linear media TV, film etc. Especially games have also brought in dynamic or adaptive mixing.
The World Wide Web has greatly enhanced the ability of sound designers to acquire source material quickly, easily and cheaply. Nowadays, a designer can preview and download crisper, more "believable" sounds as opposed to toiling through time- and budget-draining "shot-in-the-dark" searches through record stores, libraries and "the grapevine" for often inferior recordings.
In addition, software innovation has enabled sound designers to take more of a DIY or "do-it-yourself" approach. From the comfort of their home and at any hour, they can simply use a computer, speakers and headphones rather than renting or buying costly equipment or studio space and time for editing and mixing. This provides for faster creation and negotiation with the director. The terms sound design and sound designer began to be used in the motion picture industry in Stewart Citizen Kaneand Carl Faulkner Journey to the Center of the Earth served in this capacity during Hollywood's studio era, and are generally considered to be sound designers by a different name.
The advantage of calling oneself a sound designer beginning in En Ny Slags Likgiltighet - Position Alpha - The Great Sound Of Sound decades was two-fold. It strategically allowed for a single person to work as both an editor and mixer on a film without running into issues pertaining to the jurisdictions of editors and mixers, as outlined by their respective unions.
Additionally, it was a rhetorical move that legitimated the field of post-production sound at a time when studios were down-sizing their sound departments, and when producers were routinely skimping on budgets and salaries for sound editors and mixers. In so doing, it allowed those who called themselves sound designers to compete for contract work and to negotiate higher salaries. The position of Sound Designer therefore emerged in a manner similar to that of Production Designerwhich was created in the s when William Cameron Menzies made revolutionary contributions to the craft of art direction in the making of Gone with the Wind.
The audio production team is a principal member of the production staff, with creative output comparable to that of the film editor and director of photography. Several factors have led to the promotion of audio production to this level, when previously it was considered subordinate to other parts of film:. The contemporary title of sound designer can be compared with the more traditional title of supervising sound editor ; many sound designers use both titles interchangeably.
The demand for more sophisticated soundtracks was felt both inside and outside Hollywood, and the supervising sound editor became the head of the large sound department, with a staff of dozens of sound editorsthat was required to realize a complete sound job with a fast turnaround. Sound design, as a distinct discipline, is one of the youngest fields in stagecraftsecond only to the use of projection and other multimedia displays, although the ideas and techniques of sound Uwierz - Variété - Wrocław 1987 have been around almost since theatre started.
Dan Duganworking with three stereo tape decks routed to ten loudspeaker zones  during the —69 season of American Conservatory Theater ACT in San Francisco, was the first person to be called a sound designer. Modern audio technology has enabled theatre sound designers to produce flexible, complex, and inexpensive designs that can be easily integrated into live performance.
The influence of film and television on playwriting is seeing plays being written increasingly with shorter scenes, which is difficult to achieve with scenery but easily conveyed with sound. The development of film sound design is giving writers and directors higher expectations and knowledge of sound design.
Consequently, theatre sound design is widespread and accomplished sound designers commonly establish long-term collaborations with directors. Sound design for musicals often focuses on the design and implementation of a sound reinforcement system that will fulfill the needs of the production.
If a sound system is already installed in the performance venue, it is the sound designer's job to tune the system for the best use for a particular production. Sound system tuning employs various methods including equalizationdelay, volume, speaker and microphone placement, and in some cases, the addition of new equipment. In conjunction with the director and musical director, if any, the sound reinforcement designer determines the use and placement of microphones for actors and musicians.
The sound reinforcement En Ny Slags Likgiltighet - Position Alpha - The Great Sound Of Sound ensures that the performance can be heard and understood by En Ny Slags Likgiltighet - Position Alpha - The Great Sound Of Sound in the audience, regardless of the shape, size or acoustics of the venue, and that performers can hear everything needed to enable them to do their jobs.
While sound design for a musical largely focuses on the artistic merits of sound reinforcement, many musicals, such as Into the Woods also require significant sound scores see Sound Design for Plays.
Sound design for plays often involves the selection of music and sounds sound score for a production based on intimate familiarity with the play, and the design, installation, calibration and utilization of the sound system that reproduces the sound score.
The sound designer for a play and the production's director work together to decide the themes and emotions to be explored. Based on this, the sound designer for plays, in collaboration with the director and possibly the composer, decides upon the sounds that will be used to create the desired moods.
In some productions, the sound designer might also be hired to compose music for the play. The sound designer and the director usually work together to "spot" the cues in the play i.
Some productions might use music only during scene changes, whilst others might use sound effects. Likewise a scene might be underscored with music, sound effects or abstract sounds that exist somewhere between En Ny Slags Likgiltighet - Position Alpha - The Great Sound Of Sound two.
Some sound designers are accomplished composers, writing and producing music for productions as well as designing sound. Many sound designs for plays also require significant sound reinforcement see Sound Design Collagenic Affections - FlatV5 / Faeces Eruption - FlatV5 / Faeces Eruption Musicals.
In contemporary music business, especially in the production of rock musicambient musicprogressive rockand similar genresthe record producer and recording engineer play important roles in the creation of the overall sound or soundscape of a recording, and less often, of a live performance.
A record producer is responsible for extracting the best performance possible from Syri - EleMental musicians and for making both musical and technical decisions about the instrumental timbres, arrangements, etc. On some, particularly more electronic music projects, artists and producers in more conventional En Ny Slags Likgiltighet - Position Alpha - The Great Sound Of Sound have sometimes sourced additional help from artists often credited as "sound designers", to contribute specific auditory effects, ambiences etc.
These people are usually more versed in e. In application of electroacoustic techniques e. This is because sometimes there exists a difference in interests between artists calling themselves composers and artists calling themselves electronic musicians or sound designers.
The latter being sometimes more experienced as well as interested in electronic music techniques, such as sequencing and synthesizers, but the former often wanting to use elements of electronic music in compositions but often being more experienced in writing music in a variety of genres.
Since electronic music itself is quite broad in techniques and often separate from techniques applied in other genres, this kind of collaboration can be seen as fairly natural as well as beneficial. In fashion shows, the sound designer often works with the artistic director to create an atmosphere fitting the theme of a collection, commercial campaign or event.
Sound is widely used in a variety of human-computer interfacesin computer games and video games. For example, the most computational resources are usually devoted to graphics, which in turn means that the sound playback is often limited to some upper memory consumption as well as CPU use Step Aside - Stallion - From The Dead. These have to be added to the concerns of audio production, since it is often not enough to merely "create good sound", but the sound also has to fit to the given computational limits, while still sounding good, which may require e.
However, sound for computer applications also adds some new creative aspects to music and sound, because computer sound especially in games often involves the sound having or desired to be interactive. Adding interactivity can involve using a variety of playback systems or logic, using tools that allow the production of interactive sound e. Therefore, in interactive applications, a sound designer often collaborates with an engineer e.
Sound designers have been recognized by awards organizations for some time, and new awards have emerged more recently in response to advances in sound design technology and quality. Major British award organizations include the Sounds From The Moon - Isavis - The Dark Side Of The Man Awards. The Tony Awards retired the awards for Sound Design as of the season,  then reinstated the categories in the season.
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