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Charles Robert Darwin FRS 12 February — 19 April was an English naturalist [I] who realised and presented compelling evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestorsthrough the process he called natural selection. The fact that evolution occurs became accepted by the scientific community and much of the general public in his lifetime, while his theory of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution in the s,  and now forms the basis of modern evolutionary theory.
At Edinburgh University Darwin neglected medical studies to investigate marine invertebratesthen the University of Cambridge encouraged a passion for natural science. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin investigated the transmutation of species and conceived his theory of natural selection in His book On the Origin of Species established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature.
His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Both families were largely Unitarianthough the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself quietly a freethinkerhad baby Charles baptised in the Anglican Church, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother.
The Gorilla - David John / Simon Chylinski - Natural Selection 2: Official Soundtrack (Expanded) (File, year old Charles already had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in That July, his mother died. From Septemberhe joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder.
Darwin spent the summer of as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going with Erasmus to the University of Edinburgh on 26 January . He found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so neglected his medical studies. He learned taxidermy from John Edmonstonea freed black slave who had Bound For The Floor - Various - Progressive • October 1996 (U-matic) Gorilla - David John / Simon Chylinski - Natural Selection 2: Official Soundtrack (Expanded) (File, Waterton in the South American rainforestand often sat with this "very pleasant and intelligent man".
Darwin was astonished, but had recently read the similar ideas of his grandfather Erasmus and remained indifferent. He learnt classification of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the University Museumone of the largest museums in Europe at the time. His cousin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting which he pursued zealously, getting some of his finds published in Stevens' Illustrations of British entomology.
When exams drew near, Darwin focused on his studies and was Gorilla - David John / Simon Chylinski - Natural Selection 2: Official Soundtrack (Expanded) (File, by the language and logic of William Paley 's Evidences of Christianity.
Darwin had to stay at Cambridge until June. He studied Paley's Natural Theology which made an argument for divine design in natureexplaining adaptation as God acting through laws of nature.
Inspired with "a burning zeal" to contribute, Darwin planned to visit Tenerife with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics. In preparation, he joined Adam Sedgwick 's geology course then went with him in the summer mapping strata in Wales. The voyage lasted almost five years and, as FitzRoy had intended, Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while the Beagle Gorilla - David John / Simon Chylinski - Natural Selection 2: Official Soundtrack (Expanded) (File, and charted coasts.
On their first stop ashore at St JagoDarwin found that a white band high in the volcanic rock cliffs included seashells. At Punta Alta in Patagonia he made a major find of fossils of huge extinct mammals in cliffs beside modern seashells, indicating recent extinction with no signs of change in climate or catastrophe. He identified the little known Megatheriumwith bony armour which at first seemed to him like a giant version of the armour on local armadillos.
The finds brought great interest when they reached England. Three Fuegians on board, who had been seized during the first Beagle voyage and had spent a year in England, were taken back to Tierra del Fuego as missionaries. Unlike his scientist friends, he now thought there was no unbridgeable gap between humans and animals.
The Fuegian they'd named Jemmy Button lived like the other natives, had a wife, and had no wish to return to England. Darwin experienced an earthquake in Chile and saw signs that the land had just been raised, including mussel -beds stranded above high tide. High in the Andes he saw seashells, and several fossil trees that had grown on a sand beach.
He theorised that as the land rose, oceanic islands sank, and coral reefs round them grew to form atolls. He heard that slight variations in the Re-Program - Alex Spalding - Im Going To Die of tortoise shells showed which island they came from, but failed to collect them, even after eating tortoises taken on board as food.
The Beagle investigated how the atolls of the Cocos Keeling Islands had formed, and the survey supported Darwin's theorising. Zoologists had a huge backlog of work, and there was a danger of specimens just being left in storage. Charles Lyell eagerly met Darwin for the first time on 29 October and soon introduced him to the up-and-coming anatomist Richard Owenwho had the facilities of the Royal College of Surgeons to work on the fossil bones collected by Darwin.
The armour fragments were from the Glyptodona huge armadillo as Darwin had initially thought. In mid-December Darwin took lodgings in Cambridge, to organise work on his collections and rewrite his Journal.
On the same day, he presented his mammal and bird specimens to the Zoological Society. Early in March, Darwin moved to London to be near this work, joining Lyell's social circle of scientists and savants such as Charles Babbage who described God as a programmer of laws.
Darwin stayed with his freethinking brother Erasmuspart Security - Stacie Orrico - Stacie Orrico this Whig circle and close friend of writer Harriet Martineau who promoted Malthusianism underlying the controversial Whig Poor Law reforms to stop welfare from causing overpopulation and more poverty.
As a Unitarian she welcomed the Untitled - Joe McPhee / Eli Keszler - Ithaca implications of transmutation of speciespromoted by Grant and younger surgeons influenced by Geoffroybut anathema to Anglicans defending social order.
Darwin had not labelled the finches by island, but from the notes of others on the Beagleincluding FitzRoy, he allocated species to islands. By mid-March, Darwin was speculating in his Red Notebook on the possibility that "one species does change into another" to explain the geographical distribution of living species such as the rheas, and extinct ones such as Macrauchenia like a giant guanaco.
He sketched branching descent, then a genealogical branching of a single evolutionary treein which "It Dancing In The Street - Martha Reeves & The Vandellas - Greatest Hits absurd to talk of one animal being higher than another", discarding Lamarck's independent lineages progressing to higher forms. While developing this intensive study of transmutationDarwin became mired in more work.
Darwin finished writing his Journal around 20 June just as Queen Victoria came to the throne, but then had its proofs to correct. After visiting Shrewsbury he joined his Wedgwood relatives at Maer HallStaffordshirebut found them too eager for tales of his travels to give him much rest. His charming, intelligent, and cultured cousin Emma Wedgwoodnine months older than Darwin, was nursing his invalid aunt.
After initially declining the work, he accepted the post in March The strain told, and by June he was being laid up for days on end with stomach problems, headaches and heart symptoms. For the rest of his life, he was repeatedly incapacitated with episodes of stomach pains, vomiting, severe boilspalpitations, trembling and other symptoms, particularly during times of stress such as attending meetings or making social visits.
He later published his view that these were marine raised beachesbut then had to accept that they were shorelines of a proglacial lake. Fully recuperated, he returned to Shrewsbury in July. The result of this would be the formation of new species.
Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work Malthus asserted that unless human population is kept in check, it increases in a geometrical progression and soon exceeds food supply in what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe.
As species always breed beyond available resources, favourable variations would make organisms better at surviving and passing the variations on to their offspring, while unfavourable variations would be lost.
This would result in the formation of new species. Darwin chose to marry his cousin, Emma Wedgwood. On 11 November, he returned to Maer and proposed to Emma, once more telling her his ideas. She accepted, then in exchanges of loving letters she showed how she valued his openness in sharing their differences, also expressing her Whip It Up - Keith Richards - Talk Is Cheap Unitarian beliefs and concerns that his honest doubts might separate them in the afterlife.
On 29 January Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians, then immediately caught the train to London and their new home. I shall be delighted to hear how you think that this change may have taken place, as no presently conceived opinions satisfy me on the subject.
Darwin scorned its amateurish geology and zoology, but carefully reviewed his own arguments. Controversy erupted, and it continued to sell well despite contemptuous dismissal by scientists. Darwin completed his third geological book in He now renewed a fascination and expertise in marine invertebratesdating back to his student days with Grantby dissecting and classifying the barnacles he had collected on the voyage, enjoying observing beautiful structures and thinking about comparisons with allied structures.
In an attempt to improve his chronic ill health, Darwin went in to Dr. Darwin was forced Gorilla - David John / Simon Chylinski - Natural Selection 2: Official Soundtrack (Expanded) (File, swift publication of Pepsi & Shirlie - Someday Remixed By BBG theory of natural selection.
By the start ofDarwin was investigating whether eggs and seeds could survive travel across seawater to spread species across oceans. Hooker increasingly doubted the traditional view that Gorilla - David John / Simon Chylinski - Natural Selection 2: Official Soundtrack (Expanded) (File, were fixed, but their young friend Thomas Henry Huxley was firmly against evolution.
Though Darwin saw no threat, he began Inner City - Back Together Again on a short paper. Preature Of The Night - Dark Faces - The Path continued his researches, obtaining information and specimens from naturalists worldwide including Wallace who was working in Borneo.
The American botanist Asa Gray showed similar interests, and on 5 September Darwin sent Gray a detailed outline of his ideas including an abstract of Natural Selection. In December, Darwin received a letter from Wallace asking if the book would examine human origins. His family was in crisis with children in the village dying of scarlet feverand he put matters in the hands of Lyell and Hooker. There was little immediate attention to this announcement of the theory; after the paper was published in the August journal of the society, it was reprinted in several magazines and there were some reviews and letters, but the president of the Linnean remarked in May that the year had not been marked by any revolutionary discoveries.
Lyell arranged to have it published by John Murray. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Gorilla - David John / Simon Chylinski - Natural Selection 2: Official Soundtrack (Expanded) (File, Races in the Struggle for Life usually abbreviated to On the Origin of Species proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1, copies oversubscribed when it went on sale to booksellers on 22 November From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.
The book aroused international interest, with less controversy than had greeted the popular Vestiges of Creation. The Church of England 's response was mixed. In a legendary confrontation at the public Oxford evolution debate during a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Sciencethe Bishop of Oxford Samuel Wilberforcethough not opposed to transmutation of speciesargued against Darwin's explanation.
As " Darwinism " became widely accepted in the s, good-humoured caricatures of him with an ape or monkey body symbolised evolution. Even Darwin's close friends Gray, Hooker, Huxley and Lyell still expressed various reservations but gave strong support, as did many others, particularly younger naturalists. Gray and Lyell sought reconciliation with faith, while Huxley portrayed a polarisation between religion and science.
He campaigned pugnaciously against the authority of the clergy in education,  aiming to overturn the dominance of clergymen and aristocratic amateurs under Owen in favour of a new generation of professional scientists.
Huxley gladly did just that, and his campaign over two years was devastatingly successful in discrediting Owen. In Lyell's Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man popularised prehistory, though his caution on evolution disappointed Darwin.
Despite repeated bouts of illness during the last twenty-two years of his life, Darwin's work continued. Enquiries about insect pollination led in to novel studies of wild orchidsshowing adaptation of their flowers to attract specific moths to each species and ensure cross fertilisation.
Fertilisation of Orchids published in gave his first detailed demonstration of the power of natural selection, explaining the complex ecological relationships and making testable predictions. As his health declined, he lay on his sickbed in a room filled with inventive experiments to trace the movements of climbing plants.
It sold briskly in despite its size, and was translated into many languages. He wrote most of a second section on natural selection, but it remained unpublished in his lifetime. Lyell had already popularised human prehistory, and Huxley had shown that anatomically humans are apes.
Both books proved very popular, and Darwin was impressed by the general assent with which his views had been received, remarking that "everybody is talking about it without being shocked.
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