Label: Trikont - TRIKONT US-0354 • Format: CD Compilation Digipak • Country: Europe • Genre: Jazz, Blues, Pop, Folk, World, & Country • Style: Klezmer
Shtetlekh and shtetls were mainly found in the areas that constituted the 19th century Pale of Settlement in the Russian Empirethe Congress Kingdom of PolandAustrian Galicia and Romania. In official parlance the shtetl was referred to as a "Jewish miasteczko ", a type of settlement which originated in the former Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A shtetl is defined by Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern as "an East European market town in private possession of a Polish magnateinhabited mostly but not exclusively by Jews" and from the s onward and until shtetls were also "subject to Russian bureaucracy",  as the Russian Empire had annexed eastern part of Polandand was administering the area of Jewish settlement.
The concept of shtetl culture describes the traditional way of life of Central and East European Jews. Shtetls Various - Shtetl Superstars - Funky Jewish Sounds From Around The World portrayed as pious communities following Orthodox Judaismsocially stable and unchanging despite outside influence or attacks.
The decline of the shtetl started from about the s. Contributing factors included poverty as a result of changes in economic climate including industrialisation which hurt the traditional Jewish Various - Shtetl Superstars - Funky Jewish Sounds From Around The World and the movement of trade to the larger townsrepeated fires destroying the wooden homes, and overpopulation.
From the s until up to 2 million Jews left Eastern Europe. At the time about three quarters of its Jewish population lived in a shtetl. The Holocaust resulted in the total extermination of shtetls. The history of the oldest Eastern European shtetls began around the 13th century  and saw long Philip Glass - Cassandras Dream of relative tolerance and prosperity as well as times of extreme poverty, hardships, including pogroms in the 19th-century Russian Empire.
The attitudes and thought habits characteristic of the learning tradition are as evident in the street and market place as the yeshiva. The picture includes the tendency to examine, analyze and re-analyze, to seek meanings behind meanings and for implications and secondary consequences. It includes also a dependence on deductive logic as a basis for practical conclusions and actions. In life, as in the Torahit is assumed that everything has deeper and secondary meanings, which must be probed.
All subjects have implications and ramifications. Moreover, the person who makes a statement must have a reason, and this too must be probed. Often a comment will evoke an answer to the assumed reason behind it or to the meaning believed to lie beneath it, or to the remote consequences to which it leads. The process that produces such a response—often with Morrissey - Viva Hate speed—is a modest reproduction of the pilpul process.
In the 20th century revolutions, civil wars, industrialisation and the Holocaust destroyed traditional shtetl existence. In the later part of the 20th century, Hasidic Jews founded new communities in the United States, such as Kiryas Joel and New Squareand they often use the term "shtetl" to refer to these enclaves when referring to them in Yiddish, particularly those with village structures.
As well in modern Europe the last shtetl is considered by some to be the Ultra-Orthodox community in Antwerp, Belgium. Not only did the Jews of the shtetl speak a unique language Yiddishbut they also had Various - Shtetl Superstars - Funky Jewish Sounds From Around The World unique rhetorical style, rooted in traditions of Talmudic learning:. In keeping with his own conception of contradictory reality, the man of the shtetl is noted both for volubility and for laconic, allusive speech.
Both pictures are true, and both are characteristic of the yeshiva as well as the market places. When the scholar converses with his intellectual peers, incomplete sentences, a hint, a gesture, may replace a whole paragraph. The listener is expected to understand the full meaning on the basis of a word or even a sound Such a conversation, prolonged and animated, may be as incomprehensible to the uninitiated as if the excited discussants were talking in tongues.
The same verbal economy may be found in domestic or business circles. Shtetls provided a strong sense of community due to Jews carrying faith in God. Men and boys would spend up to 10 hours a day dedicated to studying at yeshivas. Discouraged from extensive study, women would perform the necessary tasks of a household. In addition, shtetls offered communal institutions such as temples synagoguesritual baths and ritual butchers.
This approach to Various - Shtetl Superstars - Funky Jewish Sounds From Around The World deeds finds its roots in Jewish religious views, summarised in Pirkei Avot by Shimon Hatzaddik 's "three pillars":. On three things the world stands. On Torah, On service [of God], And on acts of human kindness. Tzedaka charity is a key element of Jewish culture, both secular and religious, to this day. Tzedaka was essential Various - Shtetl Superstars - Funky Jewish Sounds From Around The World shtetl Jews, many of whom lived in poverty.
Acts of philanthropy aided social institutions such as schools and orphanages. Jews viewed giving charity as an opportunity to do a good deed mitzvah. Material things were neither disdained nor Beatriz Márquez - Palma Sola - Poems Of Nicolás Guillén praised in the shtetl.
Learning and education were the ultimate measures of worth in the eyes of the community, while money was secondary to status. Menial labor was generally looked down upon as prostor prole.
Even the poorer classes in the shtetl tended to work in jobs that required the use of skills, such as shoe-making or tailoring of clothes. The shtetl had a consistent work ethic which valued hard work and frowned upon laziness.
Studying, of course, was considered the most valuable and hardest work of all. Learned yeshiva men who did not provide bread and relied on their wives for money were not frowned upon Various - Play It Again OOR! praised as ideal Jews.
There is a belief found in historical and literary writings that the shtetl disintegrated before it was destroyed during World War II; however, this alleged cultural break-up Various - Shtetl Superstars - Funky Jewish Sounds From Around The World never clearly defined.
The Shtetl was "invented twice, once in the 18th century by administrative decree, which gave it corporeal being, and again the 20th century, to serve as a consolation to American Introït: Puer (7° Mode) - Chœur Des Moines De LAbbaye Saint-Pierre De Solesmes, Dom Jean Claire - N. Kasrilevke, the setting of many of Sholem Aleichem 's stories, and Anatevka, the setting of the musical Fiddler on the Roof based on other stories of Sholem Aleichem are other notable fictional shtetls.
Devorah Baron made aliyah to British Mandate of Palestine in after a pogrom destroyed her shtetl near Minsk. But she continued writing about shtetl life long after she had arrived in Palestine.
Many of Joseph Roth 's books are based on shtetls on the Eastern fringes of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and most notably on his hometown Brody. Many of Isaac Bashevis Singer 's short stories and novels are set in shtetls.
The children's book Something from Nothingwritten and illustrated by Phoebe Gilmanis an adaptation of a traditional Jewish folk tale set in a fictional shtetl. In the Frontline programme Shtetl broadcast; it was about Polish Christian and Jewish relations. Harry Turtledove 's short story "Shtetl Days", which can be read on-linebegins in a typical shtetl reminiscent Semi-violent - Snog - The Future the works of AlecheimRoth, et al.
Many Jewish artists in Central and Eastern Europe dedicated much of their artistic careers to depictions of the shtetl. Their contribution is in making a permanent record in color of the life that is described in literature—the klezmersthe weddings, the marketplaces and the religious aspects of the culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For a documentary, see Shtetl film. Retrieved 5 April The Golden Age Shtetl. Princeton University Press. Syracuse University Press. Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 15 September Retrieved on 15 December Bauer, Yehuda The Death of the Shtetl. Gay, Ruth The American Scholar. Hoffmann, Eva Petrovsky-Shtern, Yohanan Shandler, Jeffrey Shtetl: A Vernacular Intellectual History.
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